There is a paradox inherent in how we think about time. We perceive ourselves as living in time, yet we often imagine that the better aspects of our world and ourselves transcend it. What makes something really true, we believe, is not that it is true now but that it always was and always will be true. What makes a principle of morality absolute is that it holds in every time and every circumstance. We seem to have an ingrained idea that if something is valuable, it exists outside time. We yearn for “eternal love”. We speak of “truth” and “justice” as timeless. Whatever we most admire and look up to – God, the truths of mathematics, the laws of nature – is endowed with an existence that transcends time. We act inside time but judge our actions by timeless standards.
The small-world networks first discovered by Duncan Watts and Steve Strogatz, as well as another kind of networks that are close relatives, appear to be pervasive in both nature and human society. The World Wide Web has now well over one million pages, and yet it does not take forever to get from one to another – a few clicks usually suffice, for the very same reason that it takes only six handshakes to go between any two people on our planet. There is a kind of the innate intelligence in these networks structures, almost as if they had been finely crafted and laid out by the hand of some divine architect. Scientists are only beginning to understand where this intelligence comes from, how it can arise quite naturally, and most of all, how we might learn from it.
When we try to extend the new understanding of life to the social domain, we immediately come up against a bewildering multitude of phenomena – rules of behaviour, values, intentions, goals, strategies, designs, power relations – that play no role in most of the nonhuman world but are essential to human social life. These diverse characteristics of social reality all share the basic common feature, which provides a natural link to the systems view of life.
1) The End of Owning Stuff: Innovative online platforms are continuing to support the shift away from ownership towards access in a range of industries. They allow individuals and companies to provide easy access to their assets, resources, time, and skills, often at lower cost and more convenience than was traditionally possible.
2) Agile Culture: Efficient working practices honed over years in the software development industry are being applied to other business areas. Practices like Agile Project Management with its short development cycles, daily micro-planning meetings, and in-depth evaluative retrospectives have seen widespread integration over the last few years.
3) Work and Life – Integrate or Separate: Defining when we are “at work” and when we are not, is becoming increasingly difficult. The applications and devices that allow flexibility in the workplace, remote collaboration, and cloud storage have also made the concept of the office almost obsolete.
4) Constant Collaboration: It can be an unfortunate necessity, as with Apple, unable to find reliable alternative suppliers for their iPhone A9 processor chips still rely on their main rival Samsung for their manufacture. It can be a brave strategy, as with Amazon creating their Marketplace, collaborating with millions of users and allowing them to compete directly with the company on its own platform. This collaboration paid off and now accounts for 35% of Amazon’s revenue.
5) e-Leadership: Nearly every company will need to transform its business model to thrive in a digital economy, which means the executive team’s knowledge and reputation in digital will also need to change. Leaders of course don’t need to learn how to code, or design user interfaces themselves, or analyse big data, but they do need to know the benefits of such crucial digital business tools. A key attribute that successful e-Leaders will have is curiosity. They should explore and embrace new trends, tools, and technologies as they emerge. They should be willing to try new ways of working and making. They should accept failure as an important step on the road to success.
Source link: http://changes-of-tomorrow.hyperisland.com/business
by Brady, Michael Connolly, Ph.D., Indiana University, 2012, 188; 3509892
This dissertation addresses two related questions: (1) what form might a complex motor plan take in the brain, and (2) how might such a plan be converted into coordinated motor behavior?
One approach to modeling sophisticated human motor skills, like typing or musical performance or speech is to conceptualize the motor plan as a stream of discrete instructions. This approach has perhaps been attractive in cognitive science because it allows theorists to discuss motor plans in terms of symbolic notations. However, many brain and robotics researchers have come to view the concept of the symbolic command sequence as motor plan to be wanting.
This dissertation offers a concrete alternative based on established brain circuitry. It demonstrates and analyzes how a control signal for complex motor behavior through time may be modeled as a composite of neural firing patterns. Activation patterns that correspond to a production sequence arrive from multiple sources and persist in tandem over relatively long spans of time as they act to influence and contextualize each other. Such persistent and holistic activity must then be transformed into serial behavior.
This is achieved through neural dynamics. Motor activity emerges as a result of interactions between long-time resonance patterns and short-time worldly input and feedback. Modeling involves the cortico-thalamic circuit together with a modern depiction of the functional role of the cerebellum. The cerebellar model provides a temporally structured signal that helps to inform cortico-thalamic processing and motor rehearsal. The system is situated in a speech motor control and feedback framework.
The control framework includes a mechanical vocal tract and the dissertation as a whole may be interpreted as the multidisciplinary foundation for a speech robotics research program.