Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence or reality as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.
Levine discusses how European philosophers view America.
Epistemology is the study of our method of acquiring knowledge. It answers the question, “How do we know?” It encompasses the nature of concepts, the constructing of concepts, the validity of the senses, logical reasoning, as well as thoughts, ideas, memories, emotions, and all things mental. It is concerned with how our minds are related to reality, and whether these relationships are valid or invalid.
Epistemology (i/ᵻˌpɪstᵻˈmɒlədʒi/; from Greek ἐπιστήμη, epistēmē, meaning “knowledge”, and λόγος, logos, meaning “word”) is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.
If the members of a family sit passively and slothfully for several hours every day before the television screen so that any conversation, any real communion of hearts and minds is effectively excluded, this would seem to be an uncivilized use of the medium. If no zones of family life, even meal-times, are kept free from the intrusion of the outer world, especially the world of gnosticism and escapism, so that each is silently and languidly immersed in his or her own dreams, this is a bad witnessing of the eyes and ears which reduces to an enormous extent the opportunities to be civil, to be considerate of others.
Of the philosophers who have claimed absolute knowledge, only Spinoza has offered it, not as the reception of a divine revelation, and not as the fulfillment of a historical process, as in Hegel's epistemology, but as a means for intuitively affirming the truth inherent within all of reality.
Reality is susceptible to such an intuition, he said, because every being is a mode of it, or a way that it expresses itself. In other words, for us to come to know the “absolute” is for the absolute to come to know itself. There is thus something basically self-reflexive and introspective about Spinoza’s epistemology.
At the same time, knowledge for Spinoza is always of what he calls God or Nature, which can also be understood as the universe itself.