“Aristotle describes and argues for the four causes in his books Physics and Metaphysics as a part of developing his philosophy of substance. He claims that there are four causes (or explanations) needed to explain change in the world. A complete explanation of any material change will use all four causes. These causes are material, formal, efficient and final.”

1) The material cause is what something is made out of.
2) The formal cause is what makes a thing one thing rather than many things.
3) The efficient cause is what did that.
4) The final cause is why efficient causes do what they do and why formal causes do what they do.

Aristotle describes and argues for the four causes in his books Physics and Metaphysics as a part of developing his philosophy of substance. He claims that there are four causes (or explanations) needed to explain change in the world. A complete explanation of any material change will use all four c…

Source Link: http://simplyphilosophy.org/philosophy/classical-greek-philosophy/aristotle/the-four-causes/